Coding Tool

Searching

The Coding Tool works by searching as the user continues typing in the searchbox:

screenshot of Coding Tool search start

Coding Tool generates (and dynamically updates) three different outputs as the search continues:

screenshot of Coding Tool search results

  1. Word list

    On the left side the Coding Tool shows a list of words.

    If you are in the middle of a word the system will try to guess the word that you are typing.

    screenshot of Coding Tool tries to guess the word

    If you have completed a word (it means that you have typed a space at the end of a word, or you have selected a word directly from the word list) the system will show you related keywords.
    The relatedness is calculated by using the number of times the words appear together in the ICD together with some other similar measures.

    screenshot of Coding Tool related words

    This list can be sorted by relatedness (default) or alphabetically

    screenshot of Coding Tool word list sort options

    It is possible to click these words instead of continuing to type.

  2. Destination Entities

    The middle output of the Coding Tool interface shows the matched entities of the search.

    This output is sorted by how well the text entered matches the phrase in the ICD. The matched words are highlighted in this list (e.g: the word "tuberculosis" in the screenshot below):

    screenshot of Coding Tool entities list result

    The mouse's focus or the keyboard's focus (you can scroll throw the entities list also with the keyboard up and down keys) is showing by the red arrow on the left side of the entity and by the light-grey background.

    screenshot of Coding Tool entities list result with hover

    If the search result contains a "perfect match", the matching entity is emphasized with a blue background (as in the screenshot below)

    screenshot of Coding Tool entities list result perfect match

    The output is also grouped by using the ICD hierarchy so that if the search text matches a parent category and several children, they will appear in a fashion that is easy to identify visually. The codes for non-terminal categories (i.e. categories which have children) are rendered with a grey background in this output. E.g. in the screenshot below, the code CA23 after searching "asthma":

    screenshot of Coding Tool entities grouped by hierarchy

    You may change the sort order by using the dropdown box at the top of the list. We have two options

    • Sort by matching score (default)
    • Sort by classification order

    screenshot of Coding Tool entities list sort options

    The list shows only the codes and titles, except if the title is not a search result. e.g in the screenshot below, the highlighted term is a matching term:

    screenshot of Coding Tool entity matching term

    Incomplete results

    If the word(s) that have been entered in the search are not precise enough and the system finds more results than it could show, it gives the following warnings:

    If it finds results in more than 100 entities, it will show the best 100 matches and will place the warning: The results shown are incomplete

    screenshot of Coding Tool when the results shown are incomplete

    screenshot of Coding Tool when the word list result shown is incomplete

    In these cases, you are advised to provide more information in the search area.

    Flexible search feature could be used in cases when the Coding Tool's regular search do not return any results.

    screenshot of Coding Tool when the flexible search is available

    The way searching is performed in the flexible search mode is different in the following aspects:

    1. In the regular search mode, the Coding Tool will only give you results that contain all of the words that you've used in your search. It accepts different variants or synonyms of the words but essentially it searches for a result that contains all components of your search. Whereas in flexible search mode, the results do not have to contain all of the words that are typed. It would still try to find the best matching phrase but there may be words in your search that are not matched at all.

      • For example, let's say the user is searching for primary steatorrhea and there is no phrase in the ICD-11 index that contains these words together. The regular search of the Coding Tool will not give you any results whereas the flexible search will give you results that contain one of the words. The top result in this case will be steatorrhoea which is an index term under Other specified symptoms related to the lower gastrointestinal tract or abdomen.

    screenshot of Coding Tool flexible search results

    1. Another flexibility added is trying also some broader variants of the words. For example if the user searches Lung adenosarcoma, they will get Malignant neoplasms of bronchus or lung, unspecified . This is done by trying with "malignant neoplasm" instead of "adenosarcoma" phrase.

    Quick copying

    Clicking on the code (or on the code's title), or pressing the enter key on keyboard, copies the code selected into the clipboard. You can check what code is copied in the clipboard at any time on the right top of the page:

    screenshot of Coding Tool entity code copied in the clipboard

    Entity details

    Clicking on "details" link, on the right of every result opens the entity details content (see screenshots below):

    screenshot of Coding Tool entity details link

    screenshot of Coding Tool entity details

  3. Chapter distribution / filter

    The third output on the right is the chapters distribution.

    It shows the number of matches found in each chapter of the classification.

    By default, the system searches all chapters except the Extension Codes and the Traditional Medicine. One can change the filter by clicking on the checkboxes near the chapter names. If unticked, the results from that chapter are not shown.

    Clicking on a chapter title will show you the results only from that chapter

    screenshot of Coding Tool chapter filter

    Clicking on the Show results from default set will reset the chapter filters that you've defined and give you results from all chapters except the Extension Codes and the Traditional Medicine

    screenshot of Coding Tool chapter default set

Integrated browser

When the entity details are displayed, clicking on the maximize icon (the small square indicated in the screenshot below) opens the ICD-11 browser within the coding tool

screenshot of Coding Tool browser link

The integrated ICD-11 browser is displayed in the page as a foreground window

screenshot of Coding Tool integrated browser

The entity's data displayed on the right side of the browser are (if present):

  • Fully Specified Name
  • Description
  • Additional Information
  • Inclusions
  • Exclusions
  • Exclusions from above levels
  • Coded Elsewhere
  • Coding Note
  • Postcoordination

When browsing ICD-11, you will see the classification hierarchy on the left side of the screen. Clicking on any entity will display the details of that entity on the right side of the screen

Initially, the system only opens the hierarchy of the selected code. However, you may make the children of every entity visible by clicking on the small triangles on the left side of the entities.

screenshot of Coding Tool integrated browser open children

Postcoordination

The postcoordination system allows adding more detail to the entity that is chosen. Different types of information can be added to different elements. For example, additional "Histopathology" information could be added to most of the Neoplasm categories but it cannot be added to the categories elsewhere in the classification.

When you have opened the detail of an entity in the results list, the postcoordination link is only displayed if postcoordination is applicable to that entity (see screenshot below)

screenshot of Coding Tool link for available postcoordination

When you are on an entity in the integrated ICD-11 browser, the postcoordination area will only show the possible postcoordination axes that are applicable to that entity

screenshot of Coding Tool postcoordination example

Some categories contain information that is incomplete for the multiple purposes of the ICD. In such cases, the link's label is "Mandatory postcoordination"

screenshot of Coding Tool link for mandatory postcoordination

If the postcoordination is mandatory, the note "(code also)" in the browser's postcoordination area indicates that information needs to be added for that axis.

screenshot of Coding Tool mandatory postcoordination example

Displaying / Searching value sets

Some of the postcoordination axes can get values from a smaller set of possible values such as Laterality whereas some axes can get values from a larger value set such as Histopathology.

  • If the value set is small, the browser will show all possible values with their codes.

    screenshot of Coding Tool small value set postcoordination example

  • If the value set is large, you browse through the hierarchy tree of the postcoordination axis. Otherwise, you can search the value sets by typing in the search box. The browser will search only the values for that axis.

    screenshot of Coding Tool big value set postcoordination example

  • Sometimes, even though the actual value set for an axis is large, not all values from the value set are applicable for an entity. In such cases, the browser will show/search only the relevant part. If the number of values that can be applied is less than 12, the browser will list all of them. If the result is larger than the browser will allow searching and browsing of the axis.

    For example, Aneurysmal bone cyst can be postcoordinated with Specific Anatomic Detail but not all values are applicable. In such cases, the browser will display/search only the relevant ones. In the example below, when the user searches "head", the system only shows the hits that are in the "bones" branch of the "Specific anatomic detail" axis.

    screenshot of Coding Tool search postcoordination example

Building a Code String

To build a code you need to click on the values that are displayed in the search results, in the hierarchy or in the shorter lists.

The example below shows how to code "malignant neoplasm of breast detailed with laterality and specific anatomy".
The postcoordination selections are shown at the top of the postcoordination section and the code string generated is shown above the postcoordination section.
Clicking on the "Select" button copies the code string generated into the clipboard.

screenshot of Coding Tool building a code string

Postcoordination using multiple values from the same axis

The system allows one value per axis for most of the postcoordination axes.
For example, when postcoordinating with "severity" you can't pick the value "mild" and "moderate" at the same time. However, for certain axes, the system does allow selecting multiple values. The axes that allow multiple values are listed below:

  • Associated with
  • Causing condition
  • Has manifestation
  • Specific anatomy
  • Infectious agents
  • Chemical agents
  • Medication

For these axes, you may select more than one value. For example, when postcoordination with specific anatomy is allowed, you may select more than one site

screenshot of Coding Tool postcoordination multiple values from the same axis

For some of the external causes axes, we allow multiple values only when they come from different blocks

For example, when postcoordinating Unintentional land transport traffic event injuring a pedal cyclist using the Transport event descriptor axis, we can use one value from the block "VEHICLE USER ROLE OF PERSON INJURED IN TRANSPORT RELATED EVENT" and another from the block "COUNTERPART IN LAND TRANSPORT CRASH" but we can't use two values from the same block.

When multiple values for an axis are not allowed and the user clicks on the second one, the system will replace the existing value. For example, when you are postcoordinating with severity and have already chosen mild as a value, clicking on moderate will replace the mild value with the moderate value.

Nested postcoordination

In certain cases the system may provide further specification of the postcoordination values. If the specific detail is known then select the more precise entity. If not then select the less specific entity.

screenshot of Coding Tool nested postcoordination